Explanation, causation, and psychological theories

a methodological study illustrated by an analysis of Festinger"s theory of cognitive dissonance and Newell & Simon"s theory of human problem solving by Dick Ruimschotel

Publisher: Swets & Zeitlinger in Amsterdam, Rockland, MA

Written in English
Published: Pages: 299 Downloads: 766
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  • Explanation.,
  • Causation.,
  • Cognitive dissonance.,
  • Psychology -- Philosophy.,
  • Problem solving.
  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographical references.

    StatementDick Ruimschotel.
    LC ClassificationsBD237 .R85 1989
    The Physical Object
    Paginationxxviii, 299 p. ;
    Number of Pages299
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL2215502M
    ISBN 109026509790
    LC Control Number89038668

This book outlines the recent revolutionary work in cognitive science formulating a “probabilistic model” theory of learning and development. It provides an accessible and clear introduction to the probabilistic modeling in psychology, including causal model, Bayes net, and Bayesian approaches. It also outlines new cognitive and developmental psychological studies of statistical and causal.   Deviant behavior is any behavior that is contrary to the dominant norms of are many different theories on what causes a person to perform deviant behavior, including biological explanations, sociological explanations, as well as psychological sociological explanations for deviant behavior focus on how social structures, forces, and relationships foster Author: Ashley Crossman. Psychological theories provide evidence-based explanations for why people think, behave, and feel the way they do. Personality factors, history and early experiences; and interpersonal relationships are seen as important factors in causing depression. Unlike biology, psychology is not truly a unified field. The study and practice of criminology delves into crime causation and factors that contribute to offender criminality. This means considering four basic theories: Rational Choice, Sociological Positivism, Biological Positivism and Psychological Positivism. The theories rely on logic to explain why a .

Evolutionary (ultimate) explanations 1 Function (adaptation) Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the only scientific explanation for why an animal's behaviour is usually well adapted for survival and reproduction in its environment. However, claiming that a particular mechanism is well suited to the present environment is different from claiming that this mechanism was.

Explanation, causation, and psychological theories by Dick Ruimschotel Download PDF EPUB FB2

This collection of original essays on the topics of causation and explanation offers readers a state-of-the-art view of current work in these areas. The book is notable for its interdisciplinary character, and the essays, by distinguished authors and important rising scholars, will be of interest to a wide readership, including philosophers, computer scientists, and economists.2/5(1).

Causation and Explanation offers a remarkably wide-ranging set of essays on two topics that present difficult philosophical issues. This collection of original essays on the topics of causation and explanation offers readers a state-of-the-art view of current work in these areas.

The Oxford Handbook of Causation (Oxford Handbooks) and millions of other books are available for Amazon Kindle. Learn more. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App/5(7).

Explanation, causation, and psychological theories: a methodological study illustrated by an analysis of Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance and Newell & Simon's theory of human problem.

Causation and Explanation in Social Science In a book On the Theory and Method of History published inwe must live with a seriously incomplete theory of causation that cannot distinguish causes from effects and that cannot distinguish two effects of a common cause from real cause and by: theories of causation and explanation require a commitment to a quite radical form of physicalism, making the theory difficult to apply to social, economic, and psychological phenomena This commitment would seem to narrow the scope of the theories considerablyFile Size: KB.

Psychological Theories: An Overview First, they have focused on failures in psychological development--an overbearing or weak conscience, inner conflict, insufficient moral development, and maternal deprivation with its concomitant failure of attachment File Size: 43KB.

Theories of Causation Atavists Anomalies Phrenology Somatotypes XYY chromosome Biosocial criminology Psychological theories Personality inventories Psychoanalytic approach Id, ego, and superego Psychopath Learning theory that Harry is not, in fact, from a broken home.

Clearly, our explanation of delinquency is erro-neous, and our theory File Size: KB. Hull's theory can be seen as an elaboration of the "O" in ____ S-O-R conception of psychology. Woodworth's Because he believed learning occurs in one trial, ____ rejected the law of frequency in his explanation of learning.

Theories of Causation. Many theories have been advanced to explain the cause of juvenile delinquency. Some are quite sophisticated, whereas others are predicated on rather basic “instinctive” conclusions that may or may not have a basis in fact.

Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book "13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do," and a highly sought-after speaker.

The term theory is used with surprising frequency in everyday language. of an integrated approach, with elements from all three key academic stances; biological, psychological, and sociological approaches to analyse and explain both behaviour and personality of serial killers.

This is a bid to apply the existing theories of violence, hostility, aggression, and criminality in general, to the incidents of serial murder. The individual is the primary unit of analysis in psychological theories. Personality is the major motivational element that drives behavior within individuals.

Normality is generally defined by social consensus. Psychological Explanations for Criminal Behaviour INTRODUCTION For many centuries, we have attempted to find out which people are likely to become criminals and what drives certain individuals to commit a particular type of crime in the first place.

Over the years psychologists have considered a range of different. Causation is a central topic in many areas of philosophy. In metaphysics, philosophers want to know what causation is, and how it is related to laws of nature, probability, action, and freedom of the will. In epistemology, philosophers investigate how causal claims can be inferred from statistical data, and how causation is related to perception, knowledge and explanation.

This book develops a manipulationist theory of causation and explanation: causal and explanatory relationships are relationships that are potentially exploitable for purposes of manipulation and.

history of criminal theory, spiritual and natural theories are taken as major theories of causation of crime. During medieval period, spiritual explanations were taken as punishment given by god for doing wrong things and any natural disasters like flood, fires.

Psychological Theories of Crime and Delinquency sociological and psychological theories, this literature review identifies and synthesizes five major theories in the field of psychology related to crime and delinquency.

The review is divided into the following categories: learning theories,Cited by: There are also theories of biological causation of crimes.

Causation theories are further divided into psychological, economic and political theories. Labeling theory holds that the acts of arresting and prosecuting people contribute to crime because people become labeled as criminals.

Failure of multiple realization and success of the identity theory raise a question about the autonomy of psychology from neuroscience. However, the identity of psychological and neuroscientific kinds does not rob the former of their explanatory utility.

Explanations involving psychological kinds do not compete with explanations that involve the neuroscientific kinds with which they are identical. Sociological and Psychological Theories of Crime Causation The aim of this essay is to compare, contrast and evaluate two sociological theories of crime causation and two psychological theories of crime causation.

Sociological Theories of crime, Labelling and Structural Functionalism/ Strain. Social learning theory (Bandura, ) which is also called “learned behavior theory” is one of the most popular and widely used theories under this perspective. This theory is based on the principle that both perpetration and acceptance of physical and psychological abuse is a conditioned and learned by: In criminology, examining why people commit crime is very important in the ongoing debate of how crime should be handled and prevented.

Many theories have emerged over the years, and they continue to be explored, individually and in combination, as criminologists seek the best solutions in ultimately reducing types and levels of crime.

Here is [ ]. Psychological and Psychosocial Theories of Crime Causation Crime Causation and Famous Figures Crime Causation - Pablo Escobar Forensic Accounting and Fraud Examination Timothy Mc Veigh sociological theories of crime Crime Theory and the Three-strike Fighting Strategy Theories of Crime by Criminologists Developing a Criminal Justice Policy.

Explanations are important to us in many contexts: in science, mathematics, philosophy, and also in everyday and juridical contexts. But what is an explanation.

In the philosophical study of explanation, there is long-standing, influential tradition that links explanation intimately to causation: we often explain by providing accurate information about the causes of the phenomenon to be explained.

Mental disorder - Mental disorder - Theories of causation: Very often the etiology, or cause, of a particular type of mental disorder is unknown or is understood only to a very limited extent. The situation is complicated by the fact that a mental disorder such as schizophrenia may be caused by a combination and interaction of several factors, including a probable genetic predisposition to.

Research on labeling theory, however, has not supported its major premises and critics have charged the theory lacks credibility as a description of crime causation.

Social process theories have greatly influenced social policies and have controlled both treatment orientations and community action policies. notes, 2 tables, 8 figures, and 7.

crime causation theories may responsibly be accepted. The majority are circular, trivial, not precise enough to be tested or evidently false. Consequently, their practical utility is, at best, dubious. Thus, three basic questions appear.

First, how to explain the failures. Second, whether (and if so, how) viable crime causation theories can be. The earliest explanations for deviant behavior attributed crime to supernatural forces.

A common method to determine guilt or innocence was trial by ordeal. Although theories of crime causation and the workings of the legal and criminal justice systems are of limited utility, there are theories. Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is influence by which one event, process or state, a cause, contributes to the production of another event, process or state, an effect, where the cause is partly responsible for the effect, and the effect is partly dependent on the cause.

In general, a process has many causes, which are also said to be causal factors for it, and. Behaviorism began as a form of research psychology. For the early part of the s, the behaviorists were strictly scientists. They worked in universities on psychological research problems.

They did not really start to think about mental illness and therapy until the s and 40s.Multi factor criminology theories of criminality are integration of societal, psychological and biological/biosocial theoretical approaches to defining crime causation.

Criminology multiple factor theory began its development as an interdisciplinary study to integrate valid elements of theories in a single "corpus" of crime explanations.Externalism and Mental Causation.

Pierre Jacob - - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 66 (New Series) details Argues that externalist content is not causally efficacious, but is relevant to causal explanations of behavior indirectly, via the cognitive activities of others external to the system.